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Risks Associated With Surgery

Surgery is often considered as a last resort because of the risks involved. There is a proper evaluation process that first needs to be done in order to safely carry out surgery.

The level of risks involved vary from case to case. Your age, your weight, the procedure being performed, your history, your risk factors, your heart, and lung health, the caliber of your surgeon are amongst such facets that contribute towards your choice of getting the surgery.

Therefore, before the surgery, you first talk to your General Surgeon in Karachi, who not only explains the process, but also gets the consent from the patient.

Complications During Surgery


During the surgery, the chief source of risk is from the anesthesia. In some patients, it may lead to hike in the temperature, which is referred to as malignant hyperthermia. It can be fatal if not checked in time.

Moreover, if the intubation is not carried out properly, it may also lead to issues later. Similarly, there is also the risk of aspiration, in which fluid gets into the lungs.

There can also be spike in the blood sugar and blood pressure levels, and the doctor therefore needs to be vigilant during the surgery and monitor these signs accordingly.

Although rare, but possible still is the case of anesthesia awareness, in which the patient is awake during the surgery. If a certified and credible doctor is carrying out the procedure, then you do not need to worry.


Another risk present during the surgery is that of bleeding too much. Depending on the type of the surgery performed, bleeding is expected. However, if there is a lot of blood loss, then the patient either requires instant transfusion, or the surgery needs to be stopped then.


Death during surgery is a risk that cannot be avoided; however, the degree of risk varies. Short procedures with minimal invasion carry less risk, whereas trauma and other invasive surgeries have greater risk of death.

Complications After Surgery

Adverse Reaction To Anesthesia

There is also the risk of allergic reaction to anesthesia. The symptoms may vary in intensity; in mild cases, there might be dizziness, but in severe cases, it may also cause liver toxicity.

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Deep Vein Thrombosis

In this condition, blood clots from in the deep-lying veins. These clots can then make their way to the heart, blocking blood supply to the heart, causing heart failure then.

DVT may result at the site of surgery after the operation or may develop from inactivity after the procedure. To mitigate this risk, patients are hence given heparin and other blood thinners.


Hemorrhaging, or rapid bleeding, may then lead to extensive blood loss, which can cause the patient to go into shock. They might then either need IV fluids including blood plasma or blood transfusions. In some cases, patients may need surgery to control the bleeding.


Infection can also develop at the site of the wound. Since it involves cutting the skin, hence this makes one vulnerable to pathogen attack. These infections not only delay healing but may also spread to other parts of the body.

Alongside ensuring the wound is cleaned properly, patients are also given antibiotics before and after the procedure.

Pulmonary Complications

When there is lack of deep breathing and coughing two days into surgery, there is a risk of developing pulmonary problems including pneumonia.

Pulmonary Embolism

Due to the blood clot risk, there is also the danger of pulmonary embolism. In this condition, blood clot makes it way to the lungs, cutting off the blood supply. Pulmonary embolism can also be fatal.

Urinary Retention

There is also chance of developing urinary retention, a condition in which one is unable to empty their bladder completely.


Patients can also go into shock during surgery, but if you have an excellent General Surgeon, the care can be administered in time.